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STEP 1 - WRITE A BUSINESS PLAN

Write a Business Plan

Perhaps the most important, but often undervalued step to starting a business in Tennessee is writing a business plan.

A lot of people only write a business plan because the bank won’t loan them money until a business plan is submitted.  That’s a valid reason, but there is a more important benefit.  Writing a business plan gets the ideas out of the entrepreneur’s head and helps to create a roadmap for where they want the business to go.  Business planning is a critical element to creating a successful business.

STEP 2 - SELECT A BUSINESS ENTITY

Select a Business Entity in tennessee

The second step to start a business in Tennessee is selecting a business entity. 

The business entity is sometimes referred to as the business structure.  This is how a business is legally organized to do business.  The four primary business entities include the sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation and LLC.  A brief description of each is below.

A Sole Proprietorship is an individual entrepreneur that decides to go into business for themselves. This is the easiest and least expensive of the four entities to set up.  The owner is personally responsible for all debts and actions of the company.  This is called unlimited liability and is the biggest downside to the sole proprietorship. This means if the business is sued, the owner’s personal assets are potentially at risk.  The owner will also pay self-employment tax on all business profits and may pay more in taxes than other entities.

There is no filing for a sole proprietorship in Tennessee.

General Partnerships consist of two or more people conducting a business together. Like the sole proprietorship, the partnership has unlimited liability.  If the partnership were to be sued, each of the partner’s personal assets are potentially at risk.  The partnership itself does not pay tax from business income.  Instead, profits and losses are passed through to the owner’s personal tax return.  This income is subject to self-employment tax.

The General Partnership is not required to register however the Statement of Partnership Authority may be filed with the Secretary of State that identifies partners and details the authority of each of the partners. 

The fee to file is $20.

A Corporation is a legal business entity that is separate from the individual.  While corporations are more expensive and complicated than sole proprietorships and partnerships to form, the major advantage is that the corporation shields the owner’s personal assets should the corporation be sued. 

There are multiple ways a corporation can elect to be taxed.  Also, there is no self-employment tax with a corporation as income to the owner(s) will come from either a salary or dividends. 

To form a corporation, the Corporate Charter needs to be filed with the Secretary of State. The filing fee is $100.

The Limited Liability Company (LLC) is a popular business entity choice. It provides the liability protection of a corporation with the ease of operation like a sole proprietorship.  The Limited Liability Company does not have the many burdens a corporation such as holding a board of directors meeting, shareholders meeting, taking minutes, etc.  The LLC also has the greatest tax flexibility of the four entities.  Income can be taxed as a pass-through entity like the sole proprietor or partnership or as a corporation.    

To form a Tennessee LLC, the Articles of Organization needs to be filed with the Secretary of State. The initial cost to form a Tennessee LLC is $50 per member with a minimum fee of $300 and a maximum fee of $3,000.

Learn how to form a Tennessee LLC with our step-by-step guide. 

 

To compare the pros and cons of each of the entities, see our comparison chart of business entities.

STEP 3 - REGISTER A BUSINESS NAME

Register a Business Name in TennesseeAfter deciding on a business entity, the next step in starting a business in Tennessee is to register a business name. 

HOW TO FILE A DBA IN TENNESSEE FOR SOLE PROPRIETORSHIPS & GENERAL PARTNERSHIPS

If you are a sole proprietorship or general partnership in Tennessee and doing business under your full first and last name, John Smith for example, there is no filing, but if the business will operate under a fictitious business name or DBA (Doing Business As) like John Smith’s Handyman Service, Mr. Handyman, etc, you may need to register for an Assumed Name, sometimes known as a DBA or Doing Business As with Register of Deeds office in the county where the business operates.

Learn more about registering a DBA in Tennessee

HOW TO RESERVE A BUSINESS NAME IN TENNESSEE FOR A CORPORATION OR LLC

Corporations and LLCs have to pick a name at the time of filing for the entity and each corporation/LLC has to be uniquely named. 

Learn how to check the availability of corporation and LLC names in Tennessee.

STEP 4 - FILE FOR AN EIN

How do I file an EIN in Tennessee

The Employer Identification Number or EIN (sometimes referred to as the Federal Employer Identification Number or FEIN) is a nine-digit tax identification number from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). This number identifies a business operating in the U.S, tracks tax returns and is used to open a bank account. Much like what a social security number is to a person, the EIN is a social security number for a business. While most businesses will need to get an EIN, some do not.

Partnerships, corporations and many LLCs OR sole proprietorships with employees must file for an EIN.

Sole proprietorships or a single-member LLC with no employees is NOT required to get an EIN. In these instances, the owner’s social security number is used.

Filing the EIN online takes only a few minutes and the number is available immediately. For more information about how to apply and to see our video with a step-by-step guide, check out how to file for an EIN.

STEP 5 - APPLY FOR BUSINESS LICENSES & PERMITS

how to get a business license in tennessee

To start a business in Tennessee, a company may require certain permits and/or licensing. While there is no general state of Tennessee business license, a business may need to register with a variety of agencies before opening. 

Sales & Use Tax Registration – Businesses with retail sales, leases, or rentals in Tennessee of any goods, computer software, warranty contracts, or certain services and amusements need to register for a Tennessee Sales Tax Permit from the Tennessee Department of Revenue.

Local Business Licenses – Most businesses in Tennessee (even home-based businesses occasionally) need to purchase an annual business license with the County Clerk in the county where the business is located and possibly with the Municipal Clerk if the business is located within city limits. The two common licenses are the Standard Business License and the Minimal Activity Business License. 

Standard Business License – The Standard Business License is for businesses that gross more than $10,000 annually and that are not exempt. You initially file for the Standard Business License with your county clerk, and then you file a tax return of your gross receipts with the TN Department of Revenue. Keep in mind that your tax year is based on the fiscal year end of your business.  The fee for the Standard Business License is $15 annually for each location.

You may also need to obtain a business license from your municipal clerk if your business is located within certain city limits.

Minimal Business Activity License – The Minimal Business Activity License is for businesses that gross more than $3,000 and less than $10,000 annually. You initially file the Minimal Activity Business License with your county clerk, but no annual report on gross receipts is required. Your license must be renewed at the end of the fiscal year end of your business.  The filing fee for the Minimal Business Activity License is $15 annually for each location.

You may also need to obtain a business license from your municipal clerk if your business is located within some city limits.

Some businesses don’t need to register for either a Standard or Minimal Activity Business License. Those include:

– Businesses with gross revenue of less than $3,000 annually.
– Manufacturers as described in Division D of the SIC 
– Services (but not tangible property sales) – Exempt services generally include but are not limited to doctors, dentists, veterinarians, attorneys, accountants, insurance agents, loan companies, manufacturers and farms.  They may be subject to business tax on sales. If you are unsure or your exempt status, check with your county clerk.

The Secretary of State offers online tools, which allow you to form or register a new business, and then contact your local county or municipal clerk for information about getting a business license.

Tennessee Business Tax – Generally, businesses making sales within any county and/or incorporated municipality in Tennessee will need to register for and remit business tax.  Business tax consists of two separate taxes: the state business tax and the city business tax.  With a few exceptions, all businesses that sell goods or services must pay the state business tax.  This includes businesses with a physical location in the state as well as out-of-state businesses performing certain activities in the state.

More information about the Tennessee Business Tax is available from the Tennessee Department of Revenue.

To register for the Business Tax, visit the Tennessee Department of Revenue.

Professional & Occupational Licenses – A variety of professionals in the state are regulated and need to register such as appraisers, home inspectors, barbers, scrap metal companies and many more.  Additional information, fees and licensing requirements for professions are available from the state of Tennessee.

In addition to professional licenses, businesses in a variety of industries such as food establishmentsdaycaressalvage yards and many others require licensing.

STEP 6 - FIND FINANCING

Financing a Business in Tennessee

Obtaining financing for a small business can be a stressful and time-consuming process.  Similar to getting a home loan, the bank is going to want lots of documentation on your personal finances in addition to a solid idea and the business plan.

As a rule of thumb, banks will want to see the owner invest 15%-25% of their money (equity) into a start-up business.  That can include cash but also any buildings, tools, vehicles, inventory and equipment that will be used in the business.  It is likely that the bank will want a lien on those items.

Credit score is going to play a large part in getting a loan approved.  Start-up business loans are largely based on the owner’s personal credit and their personal financial statement.

There are a number of options to finance a business.  A few of the more popular ones include:

Conventional Bank Loan – These are available at many financial institutions like banks and credit unions.  Banks are typically very conservative and place a lot of weight on the owner’s personal credit, equity and collateral.  After reviewing the business plan and personal financial information, they will respond with a yes, no or maybe.  Yes is great but we recommend talking with at least three banks to get the best rates and terms for your business.  No isn’t necessarily bad, as a bank may have many loans with other businesses in your industry or they don’t make loans for your type of business (restaurants are a typical example).   If your loan has more risk than they want or if you don’t have sufficient credit, equity or collateral they may answer with a maybe and want a loan guarantee.

Expect the loan approval process to take anywhere from 2 weeks to 6 months (and possibly more) depending on the amount being borrowed, the complexity of the project and owner’s personal financial condition.

SBA Loan Guarantee – When a small-business loan is riskier than the bank wants to take on, there are loan guarantee programs from the Small Business Administration (SBA).  This is a federal program that provides a guarantee to the bank that will pay a percentage of the loan back to the bank if the loan isn’t paid by the business owner.  The percentage depends on the program but typically ranges from 50%-85%.  Contrary to popular belief the SBA doesn’t provide business financing but they do help in getting money to small businesses by taking a majority of risk and encouraging the bank to make loans.  Another thing to note is that SBA guaranteed loans will cost the owner more in closing costs, fees and interest.

Peer-to-Peer LendingSometimes a bank isn’t the best option, due to the difficulty in getting a start-up business loan, credit purposes or the time needed to get funding.  In this case, peer-to-peer lending provides an interesting way to borrow money without going to a bank.  These are personal loans and rates will vary on the owner’s credit.  Loans will typically go up to the $35,000 – $40,000 range.  Two popular options are Prosper and LendingClub.

Grants – There is a lot of information online about all of the free money for businesses and most of it isn’t true.  There are some small business grants.  Most are for established businesses doing research and but occasionally there are private grants for business startups.  Do your research before applying and don’t pay for information telling you where the grants are, no matter how good their money-back guarantee is.  All of the federal grant information is available for free at http://grants.gov.

Here is more information about finding money to start a business.

STEP 7 - HIRE EMPLOYEES

How Do I Hire Employees in Tennessee?

Hiring employees is a complex and often intimidating process for a new business owner as there are multiple agencies to register with and labor laws to understand. 

In Tennessee, a business will register with the IRS, Department of Labor & Workforce Development, Department of Human Services and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. 

Businesses are responsible for reporting new hires, verifying employees are eligible to work in the U.S., and withholding state and federal taxes.

Employers will also pay federal and state unemployment taxes, Social Security and Medicare in addition to staying on top of state and federal labor laws. 

Learn more about the steps to hiring your first employee in Tennessee.

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